A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor by Mukul Sarkar

By Mukul Sarkar

Biological platforms are a resource of concept within the improvement of small self sufficient sensor nodes. the 2 significant forms of optical imaginative and prescient platforms present in nature are the one aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the such a lot compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible process of bugs permits them to fly with a constrained intelligence and mind processing energy. A CMOS photo sensor replicating the belief of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this booklet for commercial (machine imaginative and prescient) and clinical purposes.

The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer capable of experience polarization info. This polarization info is proven to be helpful in purposes like actual time fabric type and independent agent navigation. extra the sensor is supplied with in pixel analog and electronic stories which permit edition of the dynamic variety and in-pixel binarization in actual time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to copy the flickering impact of the insect’s eye to observe smallest attainable movement in keeping with the swap in country. An built in counter counts the adjustments in states for every row to estimate the path of the movement. The chip comprises an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS procedure from UMC.

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Image mapping is limited by the nonlinearities of the optical system. Image mapping is defined as the direct correspondence of the image at the pixel and the viewing direction. A high resolution image can be obtained from the set of low resolution images by pixel rearranging. However it is important to remove the photometric and geometric nonlinearities before trying to rearrange the sub-images pixels on the virtual image. The photometric distortion can be corrected using the model proposed by [29].

A colour sensitivity of eyes can be described by three parameters: hue, saturation and brightness. The hue defines the purity of the colour. Saturation describes the vividness or the intensity of the colour. As saturation increases, the colours appears more pure while they appear washed-out if the saturation decreases. Brightness is the relative intensity of the energy output of the visible light source. 7. Most of the insects have trichromatic colour vision, similar to humans, however there visible spectrum is shifted towards shorter wavelengths.

Due to robustness and cost effectiveness a flat CMOS detector was selected. The optical simulations showed that in flat facets (detectors), due to the diffraction issues reducing the facet dimensions below 25μm doesn’t help to obtain a better focusing. Furthermore the dimensions of the photodetector should not be smaller than 10μm to receive all the available photon flux. In curved facets however a better focussing is obtained for facets larger than 25μm. To utilize the entire area of 5mm x 5mm available in a multiple wafer run (MPW) from Europractice, an imaging array of 128 x 128 was selected with a pixel pitch of 25μm and a photodiode area of 10μm x 10μm.

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