A Technical Manual for Parasitic Weed Research and Extension by J. Kroschel (auth.), Jürgen Kroschel (eds.)

By J. Kroschel (auth.), Jürgen Kroschel (eds.)

Parasitic weeds of the households Cuscutaceae, Orobanchaceae and Scrophulariaceae are thought of to be one of the significant difficulties dealing with agriculture within the Tropics and Subtropics. within the final many years, huge, immense efforts were made and good fortune completed by means of scientists world wide in gaining a greater realizing in their biology and ecology in addition to of keep an eye on equipment. besides the fact that, no enormous aid of infestation has been accomplished long ago and keep watch over recommendations particular to different parasites, vegetation and farming structures has to be additional constructed or tailored and realised between a much broader farming inhabitants with appropriate extension equipment. This `Technical handbook' offers updated methodologies for numerous features of study and extension relating to parasitic weed species of the genera Striga, Alectra, Orobanche and Cuscuta. It has the goal to help scientists and extension employees of foreign and nationwide study and extension institutes and universities, who're both new to the topic or plan to use additional options they don't seem to be but customary with.

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The seeds remain viable for years, the cleaner the longer. Correct and extensive labelling of the containers is a must, but unfortunately often neglected. It includes 100 -- ~ ~ ~ :g IU ·:; 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 8 6 10 12 14 years -e-31°C, 100% rei. humidity (laboratory) (A) -A-Field conditions (B) -e-20°C, air dry (laboratory) (C) Fig. 8. The viability of seeds of Striga asiatica, stored under different environmental conditions. A: Kust (1963); B and C: according to Bebawi et al. g. Striga). • With Alectra plants careful evaluation of capsules is required as numerous flowers of a given shoot fail to produce seed.

In: Diagnosemethoden. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo, 15-17. Author: J Kroschel Yield loss assessment INTRODUCTION Due to the withdrawal of water, minerals and organic compounds from their hosts, the toxic effect of Striga, parasitic weeds are important biological constraints in agricultural production. The growth of their hosts is retarded and crop yields are lowered or reduced to zero under conditions of severe infestation. The relative total yield loss is the product of three factors: • the infestation rate, • the infection intensity, and • the relative yield reduction per plant stand or m2 • The absolute economic losses faced by the farm households and the entire regional economics further depend on ( 1) the potential yield of the different crops, (2) the actual acreage covered by these crops, and (3) crop prices.

As a prerequisite for the germination of Striga, Alectra and Orobanche seeds, 36 the seeds have to pass a preconditioning period under moist and warm conditions. , from a host root. In the case of parasite seeds a seed is considered germinated when the germ tube has protruded from the seed testa (Fig. 9). - I mm IM G Fig. 9. Development of the germ tube of Orobanche ramosa (on the top) and Striga hermonthica (below). g. g. :fl r th scr ening of trap crops) • to e aluate the p tential of ynthetic germination timulants.

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