By Valery P. Kukhar, Harry R. Hudson
Aminophosphinic and aminoposphonic acids, artificial analogs to usual amino acids, have attained a place of prominence in research--particularly in learn concerning the amendment of physiological strategies in residing organisms.
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Additional resources for Aminophosphonic and Aminophosphinic Acids: Chemistry and Biological Activity
The principle of the method is the following: The irradiated samples are usually dissolved in a suitable organic or inorganic solvent. Afterwards selective precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange or chromatographic procedures take place. By counting the radioactivity one is able to localize the fractions containing the implanted atoms and their reactions products. Very often macroscopic amounts of the reaction products expected have to be introduced into the solvent beforehand to permit an exact separation.
Fig. 17 shows a sketch o f a sputter source ss). If one does not have the possibility o f using different sources for different elements, one may feed the source with compounds more volatile than the elements. Chlorides, fluorides, and oxides, in particular, are useful feed materials. Unfortunately, some compounds, which are otherwise suitable, tend to undergo thermal decomposition in the source and therefore have to be eliminated. Others, such as some chlorides, are extremely sensitive to water and hence converted under normal experimental conditions into their non-volatile oxides.
The intensity of the backscattered a-particles as a function of the depth is much smaller in the latter case because the a-particles penetrate deeper into the crystal. Radiation damage now causes deviations from the ideal crystal structure, the number of available channels decreases, and due to interstitial atoms acting as additional scattering centres, the a-particle intensity becomes higher compared with the undamaged crystal. Fig. 21 illustrates this method. It shows the situation for undoped crystals in comparison with ones implanted with a high dose of ions.