By Peri Roberts
Your conceptual toolkit for the research of political thoughtPraise for the 1st edition'This turns out particularly to were written with the first-year pupil in brain. The editors write in a fashion that's transparent, clever and interesting with out being in any respect condescending.'Politics reports overview New for this variation* fresh bankruptcy on overseas political proposal, reflecting essentially the most notable advancements in modern political theoryThis textbook grants all of the vocabulary you would like - political, conceptual and historic - to interact optimistically and deeply with political inspiration and the ethical and political worlds during which we live.It lines the heritage of political suggestion from Plato and Aristotle to Kymlicka and Rorty, following a different twin constitution that introduces key thinkers and middle techniques jointly, making it appropriate for any path constitution
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Additional info for An Introduction to Political Thought, second edition: An Introduction to Political Thought: A Conceptual Toolkit
Human beings have a definite nature that mandates a particular sort of political organisation, and the politics that best suits our nature is just. An important implication is that if justice fits with human nature then justice will be the same for all people since all share the same human nature. It will be helpful if we briefly look at Plato’s specific account of justice and the important manner in which he argues that it is the correct account. Through Socrates Plato says that the nature of justice is a very obscure subject but we can cast light on it by looking at it on a large scale, in the city, before moving on to examine the nature of the just individual (368e–369a).
Critical glossary Relativism The idea that there is no absolute or universal criterion sufficient to generate cross-cultural comparisons or value judgements. The idea is simply that such standards are relative to specific times and specific places. Subjectivism This is again an issue concerned with standards of morality, of right and wrong. However, whilst the relativist regards these standards as given by communities, the subjectivist believes that each man sets his own standards. Objectivity In opposition to relativism and subjectivism, the search for objectivity assumes the existence of absolute and universal normative standards that apply in all contexts.
Physis referred to things that existed by nature, nomos to things that existed as a result of human organisation. In many ways this is similar to the modern distinction between natural and artificial. Thrasymachus and Glaucon argue that what we call justice is a product of nomos, human custom and convention. Justice is artificial rather than natural. In this way they are similar to the social-contract theorists such as Hobbes who appear in later chapters. If justice is artificial instead of natural it might not be the same everywhere.